Technologies

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Minimize Reheat

Variable Air Volume ventilation

Standard practice in California for many years has been use of constant volume systems, which leads to over-ventilation. As a default, many areas of a hospital are reheating all the time. Those areas can be operated as VAV, reducing the need for reheat. This can reduce ventilation...

Cost to implement 💰♦♦♦♦
Carbon reduction potential  🌲🌲🌲🌲

Central Plant

Heat Pumps / HR
Chillers

Traditionally, hospitals have heated the facility using hot water or steam boilers which rely on the on-site combustion of natural gas. At the same time, many hospitals are also cooling using a chiller plant and cooling tower to reject heat to the outside and exhausting....

Cost to implement 💰💰💰💰
Carbon reduction potential  🌲🌲🌲🌲🌲

Central Plant

Electric boilers / Airside electric resistance heating

Traditionally, hospitals have heated the facility using hot water or steam boilers which rely on the on-site combustion of natural gas. Switching these systems for electric water heaters or electric resistance heating is a way to reduce the amount of natural gas consumed by these heating...

Cost to implement 💰💰💰💰
Carbon reduction potential  🌲🌲🌲🌲🌲

Sterilization

Alternative no-steam sterilization

Hospitals commonly use gas-fired steam boiler systems to produce steam for sterilization, then reuse steam to heat water. Alternative options to generate steam include using: (1) Electric steam generators (2) Heat recovery from on-site energy production, and (3) Concentrating solar collectors...

Cost to implement ♦♦♦♦♦
Carbon reduction potnetial  ♦♦♦♦♦

Central Plant

Condensing Boilers

For many decades, hospitals have relied on steam boilers, using steam-fired heat exchangers to make heating hot water and domestic hot water. These systems operate at combustion efficiencies of around 80%, with system efficiencies even lower. Replacing steam boilers with standard boilers may improve system efficiency somewhat, but still operates with 20% waste in the combustion process. Condensing boilers, operating at combustion efficiency of...

Central Plant & DHW

CO2 Water Heating

The benefits of heat pumps for building heat and domestic hot water with added advantages of using carbon dioxide as refrigerent. "Conventional" heat pumps use R134a, which has a Global Warming Potential of 1432, compared to CO2 GWP of 1. CO2 heat pumps also have potential to provide hot water up to 190F, allowing use in existing buildings designed for higher heating water temperatures and storage-type domestic water heaters.

Central Plant & DHW

High Temp Solar Thermal Water Heating

Solar thermal collectors are almost carbon-free (using power only for pumps and controls). High-temperature collectors make hot water at temperatures suitable for almost any use in a hospital.

Load Shifting

HW and CW Storage

Energy storage in the form of both hot water and cold water can be used to shift the energy profile of a building to leverage the energy sources available and level the loads, making fuel cells and solar thermal or PV more viable.

Minimize Reheat

Displacement Ventilation

Displacement ventilation provides advantages in a healthcare environment of better air quality in the breathing zone, lower sound levels, reduced energy for cooling and reheat, and a pathway for improvement as code requirements for healthcare ventilation evolve.

Central Plant

Improved Heat Exchangers

Hospitals depend on coils to transfer heat from water to air in air handling units and duct coils. Every coil imposes a penalty on both the water side and the air side in the form of resistance to flow. Resistance that must be overcome by fan and pump energy..

Minimize Reheat

Better Zoning and Unoccupied Mode Strategy

Many areas of a hospital are not occupied nights and weekends, including administrative areas and some patient care areas. By zoning these systems with separate air handling units and exhaust fans, entire...

Minimize Reheat

Supply Air Temperature Setpoint Reset (SATR)

Standard control strategy for air handling units has been a constant-temperature discharge. Resetting supply air temperature based on actual cooling demand reduces the need for reheat as a means of space temperature control.

Humidification

DOAS for Humidification

Based on climate zone, supply air temperature setpoint reset (SATR) may be limited by the need for dehumidification. Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems (DOAS) dehumidifies outdoor air prior to mixing with return or supply air to improve opportunity for SATR. Additional benefit is achieved when DOAS incorporates energy recovery.

Minimize Reheat

Unoccupied mode: turndown, shutdown, low occupancy controls

Many hospital spaces operate 24/7 with large airflows and specific temperature and humidity requirements, but are occupied less than 12 hours/day. Space pressure relationships and other regulatory...

Minimize Reheat

Desiccant Systems

When HVAC systems deliver cold air at high air changes per hour (ACH) to spaces that don’t have high cooling loads, air must be reheated to prevent overcooling...

Humidification

Electric Steam Humidifiers


Cost to implement 💰💰♦♦♦
Carbon reduction potential  🌲🌲🌲🌲